Research Snip 1.95
DNA-based hydrogels have attracted significant attention in recent years for their properties and applications in fields like biosensing, bioimaging, and therapeutics. The paper summarises the recent advances in the area of DNA hydrogels where these are used either as structural material or as functional entities to make hybrid constructs with various biomedical applications.
Research Snip 1.94
Neurological disorder like stroke can adversely affect one’s ability to shift weight while standing and maintaining postural control during everyday activities. Cerebral transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) is a promising therapeutic technique in treating neurological disorders. This study is conducted to understand the implication of ctDCS on the postural control of stroke patients. Researchers refined and utilised VR-based Balance Training platform which offered different goal-directed weight shifting tasks to post-stroke patients.
Research Snip 1.93
This paper reviews the literature on the temporal binding phenomenon in both multisensory and motor-sensory contexts and suggests future research directions for advancing the field. Temporal binding is the brain’s ability to group together separate events occurring at different time points into one coherent and meaningful event sequence. By critically evaluating the literature, the paper suggests that common computational principles are responsible for the temporal binding in multisensory and motor-sensory contexts.
Research Snip 1.92
DNA damage response (DDR) is the mechanism to identify and repair damaged DNA when DNA damage is detected. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein is one of the key regulators of the DDR. The focus of this article is on targeting the key mediator of the DDR pathway, the ATM kinase. The study reports a new set of quinoline-3-carboxamides, as potential inhibitors of ATM.
Research Snip 1.91
The photon sphere is a region near black hole where the gravity is so strong that light itself can travel in orbits. A photon sphere shapes a dark region, called black hole shadow, surrounding the black hole. Researchers study the evolution of the photon sphere and black hole shadow for rotating and non-rotating black holes by solving the associated differential equation for various dynamical black hole models, leading to several non-trivial results.
Research Snip 1.90
Many modern commercial and residential buildings have a glass-based facade system. Such systems, despite offering several benefits, are easy vehicles for fire. The study reports fire behavior of facade systems in real physical conditions and fire scenarios, through experiments performed on a full-scale three story test structure. The researchers believe that the results will help improve the design philosophies for facade systems to devise better standardised facade fire tests that can be readily related with their performance in real fires.
Research Snip 1.89
Friction stir welding (FSW) is the process used to join metals in the semi-solid state. Welding of dissimilar magnesium (Mg) and Aluminum (Al) alloys is important due to their growing industrial applications. Researchers develop a heat transfer numerical model for FSW of dissimilar alloys of Mg and Al. They believe that the proposed model can be used to predict the thermal cycle, peak temperature, and thermo-mechanically affected zone for welding of dissimilar materials on FSW.
Research Snip 1.88
Hydrogels are three-dimensional polymer networks with hydrophilic properties. DNA-based hydrogels find applications in biosensing, bioimaging, and therapeutics. The article summarizes developments and standardization of DNA-based hydrogels, various methods for their synthesis and characterization, and their biomedical applications. It presents a perspective on future developments of DNA hydrogels to transform their journey from laboratory to developing new ways of treatment.
Research Snip 1.87
A paradoxical finding suggests that physical pain in certain social situations makes people smile. This paper seeks to characterize the mental process that starts from felt distress within informal social context to the motor movements that create a smile. It tests and attempts to understand the cognitive processes that produce and influence the smiling intensity during distress.
Research Snip 1.86
The spread of the coronavirus witnessed a nationwide lockdown on 24th March 2020 for 21 days, which was later extended for a longer time. The extended period of lockdown disrupted the routine of people, affecting their psychological well-being. This research, published on October 13, 2020, followed up 159 Indian adults during the first two months of the lockdown to assess change in their anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlighted the need for sensitization among people at large, about mental health impacts of a long-drawn-out lockdown.
Research Snip 1.85
Biomolecular functionalised nanoparticles (NPs) are being widely commercialised for their applications in diagnosis and therapeutics. The paper briefly summarises the recent trends in engineering functional DNA-based multiple nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications. This research presents recent works that explore enhanced biocompatibility and biorecognition of nanoparticles functionalized with DNA and different DNA entities.
Research Snip 1.84
Dual-tasking requires individuals to perform two tasks simultaneously. Lack of attention while performing a secondary task along with a primary task like walking increases the risk of falling. The study, performed in a virtual reality setting, provides a new and engaging paradigm to assess the dual-motor-task performance of different individuals. The technology can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate an individual’s dual-tasking abilities. Elderly populations can also benefit from using this model to train motor coordination and better dual-tasking.
Research Snip 1.83
IITGN researchers study consumer behavior in terms of movie trailer preferences using both neural and behavioral measures. The main aim is to use pattern recognition techniques to understand evoked responses in Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is a brain imaging tool and EEG-based preferences detection systems have been used to understand consumer preferences and how they make buying decisions. The study tries to systematically investigate if neural correlates can be an important predictor of individual choice preferences.
Research Snip 1.82
Researchers attempt to study the association of both the information gap and the uncertainty with curiosity. For this, they used a novel missing letters task to induce curiosity. To explain their findings, they proposed a schema verification view of curiosity, according to which people resolve information gaps because they are motivated to verify their prior schema of the environment. The findings are important for research that seeks to understand the factors that drive information seeking—to understand what gives information an internally generated reward value.
Research Snip 1.81
Reservoir storage forecast during the dry season can help in water management in India. However, India lacks a system that can provide reservoir storage forecasts based on statistical models or weather and climate forecasts. The research evaluates the potential of reservoir storage forecast for 91 major reservoirs in India using observed precipitation, air temperature, and streamflow. The findings could be used by policymakers, stakeholders, and water managers in decision‐making.
Research Snip 1.80
Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) are not only the critical infrastructure that affects a nation’s economy, security and social well-being but also play a significant role in accommodating the water supply needs of any community. Therefore, it is essential to protect them from failures which may occur due to natural and/or man-made disasters. The paper presents a two-step approach to analysing the resilience of WDNs. The literature demonstrates the applicability of the proposed methodology in identifying disruptions in large-scale public water networks. The method can also be extended for continuous monitoring and controlling of large-scale water distribution systems.
Research Snip 1.79
Coal is the most attractive low-cost energy resource. Transportation of coal and coal ash from their points of origin to the usage site is a major challenge. Hydraulic transportation of particulate solids as slurry (mixture of mined coal or coal waste and liquids) through the pipeline is emerging as an alternate transportation mode over large distances. This work demonstrates the effect of particle concentration and size on the rheological properties of slurries and to further investigate the head loss, energy consumption, energy cost, and transport capacity during slurry transport through pipes.
Research Snip 1.78
According to the researchers, their first-ever study (of 62,648 adolescents aged 15-17 years) investigates the relationship of community-level women’s #education with adolescents’ #nutritional status. The researchers conceptualise that residents whose neighborhoods support socio-cultural norms that value women’s well-being promote #adolescent health. The findings spotlight the role of contextual factors, highlighting the importance of structural changes and the need to engage communities along with adolescents. This might serve as the missing link in India’s adolescent anemia prevention efforts.
Research Snip 1.77
The past decade has witnessed intense research in the field of two-dimensional (2D) metal-boride-derived nanostructures. The Perspective discusses the current state of research on metal boride-derived 2D nanostructures, highlights challenges that must be overcome, and identifies future opportunities to fully utilise their potential.
Research Snip 1.76
#Ganga river basin is the most populated and among the worst water-stressed river basins in the world. The interplay between the #climate and human activities that makes the basin one of the global #groundwater depletion hotspots is not sufficiently understood. Researchers use satellite and groundwater well observations and a #hydrological model to estimate the total groundwater loss in the basin during 2002–2016. The results show that non-renewable groundwater abstraction for irrigation is the primary driver of groundwater loss from the basin during 2002–2016. Understanding the drivers and implications of groundwater depletion in the basin can help stakeholders and policymakers.
Research Snip 1.75
Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is the most developed algorithm among various deep learning methods. Identification of brain activity with the help of CNNs is used in brain imaging, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Electroencephalography (EEG), and Magnetoencephalography (MEG). EEG records electrical activity in the brain using small metal discs (electrodes) attached to the scalp. Researchers propose a novel, simple, lightweight CNN model to classify cognitive states from EEG recordings. The model can be employed in a real-time computation environment such as neurofeedback.
Research Snip 1.74
#Hydrogel is a hydrophilic #3D network of #polymer chains. The paper summarises multiple synthetic routes for constructing DNA-based hydrogels. It presents their characterisation and properties, and different applications of hydrogels in #biomedical areas. The paper also focuses on applications of #DNA hydrogels in areas like #TissueEngineering, #biosensing, and #DrugDelivery. It also presents a brief perspective on future developments of DNA hydrogels as an emerging class of therapeutically important devices for theragnostic and other #biological applications.
Research Snip 1.73
Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are used in high-rise buildings for resisting wind and earthquake loading. Their use reduces the overall weight of the structure compared to that of an equivalent reinforced concrete shear wall. Various studies have been conducted on SPSWs with openings. The findings presented in the paper provide additional insights into the behaviour of thin unstiffened SPSWs with an opening while augmenting the prior knowledge. Further, it develops prediction models for the reduced ultimate strength and initial stiffness of SPSWs with openings.
Research Snip 1.72
Accurate streamflow prediction is important for developing flood early warning systems to reduce the damage caused by the floods. Researchers evaluated the role of bias correction of meteorological forecast and post-processing of streamflow in the Narmada River basin. They found that the combination of bias correction of precipitation forecast and post-processing of streamflow forecast is required for better streamflow prediction in the basin. The findings will be useful for the development of operational flood and streamflow prediction systems in India.
Research Snip 1.71
α-Synuclein, a highly soluble neuronal protein in humans, is responsible for #Parkinson's disease (PD) development. It undergoes various post-translational modifications (PTMs) which are not only critical to PD development and progression but also modulate the aggregation of α-synuclein. Researchers present a summary of multiple PTMs involved in the modulation of α-synuclein directly or indirectly and identify their neuroprotective or neurotoxic roles, which could potentially act as therapeutic targets for PD.
Research Snip 1.70
Researchers anticipate a big future for #DNA devices in direct biomedical applications like recent Covid-19 biosensing. Their study presents a large number of biological applications that have been explored using DNA nanodevices, such as biosensing, in vivo pH-mapping, drug delivery, and therapy. The study also discusses the challenges and opportunities as well as future prospects of this emerging research area within DNA #nanotechnology.
Research Snip 1.69
Research shows that nanoparticles grafted with positively or negatively charged polyelectrolyte chains can self-assemble into different structures like rings, dimers, strings, coil-like aggregates, and disordered-to-ordered aggregates by tuning the graft length and graft density. This could be an effective way in building stimuli-responsive nanoparticle self-assemblies for drug-delivery, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.
Research Snip 1.68
The movement of seawater into the fresh water aquifer is called seawater intrusion (SWI), and the groundwater discharge into the sea through aquifers is submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). These processes cause severe water stress on the coastal water resources worldwide. IITGN’s first-ever study identifies SWI and SGD zones along the Gujarat coast of India and reveals that 9 out of 14 districts are vulnerable to SWI, and five are suspectable for SGD. The study acts as a preliminary basis for the detailed investigation of SWI and SGD zones.
Research Snip 1.67
Study analyses the relationship of in districts (sub-state divisions) dwellers exposed to two natural disasters, a drought (slow-onset) and a cyclone (rapid-onset) with violence against women by their intimate partners. Further, it examines this association under the assumption that each natural disaster might lead to different forms of intimate partner violence, namely emotional, physical, and sexual violence.
Research Snip 1.66
The findings show that the surface charge of #nanoparticles is a key control factor to achieve tip-specific assemblies of different anisotropic nanoparticles. The general approach would be broadly applicable and the finding holds importance in the #synthesis of linker-driven assemblies of #plasmonic nanoparticles and other (-bio) sensing applications requiring tip-specific functionalisation of nanorods.
Research Snip 1.65
BODIPY is a #chemical compound whose derivatives comprise the class of BODIPY dyes. Due to their excellent properties, these dyes have a wide range of applications in different #scientific and #technological fields. The paper presents the synthesis and spectral properties of a peptide conjugate of BODIPY. The conjugation significantly affected the spectral properties of the BODIPY, and the bioimaging studies showed that the peptide-linked BODIPY was able to penetrate the lung cancer cells. Also, the results suggest that it could be useful for cell-imaging applications as a bio-marker.
Research Snip 1.64
Although there is an extensive study in the literature on the toxicological impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles, their accurate tracing/quantification, and biological responses are difficult to measure at low concentrations. The study provides dual labelled copper oxide nanoparticles as effective probes capable of quantification and visualisation at low biologically relevant exposure concentrations. This can be used as a promising approach toward ecotoxicity assessments in vivo systems.
Research Snip 1.63
The process of groundwater discharge into the sea or ocean through permeable aquifers is known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD). The paper presents various components and processes related to SGD. It discusses in detail the impacts of SGD on #marine ecosystems. The paper also highlights the future prospects and lays emphasis on further research to be done in light of the changing climate and its impacts on SGD.
Research Snip 1.62
Removal of organic dye-based impurities from water has been achieved traditionally by using photocatalysts. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is one of the most significant semiconductors used for the study of photocatalysis. However, it becomes complex as it requires expensive and complex near-infrared (NIR) lasers and lamps. Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) have gained research interest in recent years due to their capability to convert NIR excitation into UV and visible emissions. Researchers have synthesized two variants of UCNP using a simplified microwave method and demonstrated that their combination with ZnO has good dye degradation efficiency in simulated river water. The study’s results will encourage the use of easily available and cost-effective light sources over complex, expensive lasers, and other lamps for the degradation of organic pollutants.
Research Snip 1.61
Random Vibration Theory (RVT) is used in engineering seismology and seismic hazard analysis to predict the peak values of #earthquake time-histories. The ground motion duration is an essential element of RVT framework and influences the prediction of time-domain peak values. The study performs a detailed evaluation of different duration measures of ground motion in the RVT framework.
Research Snip 1.60
Silicon nanostructures have been used in applications like hydrogen evolution, optical sensors, and micro-electromechanical systems. Researchers have developed a fast and scalable method to fabricate silicon nanohorns with desirable length and density. The approach could be applied to enhance the performance of solar water splitting related devices involving silicon-based materials. The obtained nanostructures enhance light absorption and may be one of the low-cost alternatives for optical devices, sensors, and hydrogen evolution.
Research Snip 1.59
Antibiotics, used as alternative medicine in Cancer therapy, can cause collateral damage in noncancerous cells. Researchers have engineered three different mitochondria-targeted antibiotic-loaded nanoparticles and found that all of them showed improved Cancer cell killing ability in cancer cells compared to free antibiotics. They also showed much less toxicity toward noncancerous human embryonic kidney cells.
Research Snip 1.58
This work proves the existence of light rings around compact objects that need not necessarily be black holes. The strong #gravity of the compact objects curves the light rays and they are forced to rotate around the objects thereby forming a light ring. The existence of light rings leads to the presence of shadow that has been observed by the famous Event Horizon Telescope. The paper answers the important question of whether all compact objects have such light rings or not.
Research Snip 1.57
In the study of disasters, the concept of ‘vulnerability’ is one of the defining components in determining the degree of a disaster, while ‘resilience’ is the ability to adapt to and recover from hazards without compromising essential basic structures and functions. The two case studies presented in this essay illustrate how western domination of vulnerability discourses have underrepresented the resilience thinking of the vulnerable ‘Sahelians of Africa’ and the ‘Sundarban Islanders of India & Bangladesh’.
Research Snip 1.56
Electrochemical water splitting to renewably produce oxygen and hydrogen is a promising alternative to power a civilization. Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER), a part of the process, generates molecular oxygen from water. To improve or design highly stable and active electrocatalysts for water splitting is a major challenge. The study provides a straightforward understanding for designing platinum-based catalysts, thereby providing a new and an essential understanding for designing catalysts with high activity for OER.
Research Snip 1.55
A substance that blocks a kinase, a type of enzyme, is called a kinase inhibitor. Human cells have different kinases, and they help control important functions. Certain kinases are more active in some types of Cancer Cells and blocking them may inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The article reports the analysis of the previously synthesised kinase inhibitors and the test for their cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines.
Research Snip 1.54
The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is considered a unique tropical #climate system, strongly influenced by sub-seasonal variability. Multiple model ensembles of Earth System Models are often used to visualise the role of uncertainties and extreme attributes of precipitation trends in various time horizons. Researchers quantify the relative contribution of uncertainty due to internal variability and model uncertainty in the depth and volatility of ISM rainfall extremes of different duration and frequencies.
Research Snip 1.53
The controlled discharge of aerosol in the aerosol-based fire extinguishers produces gases like carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen and water vapor. The toxicity of the gases given off during the discharge is a major concern. Researchers assess the toxicity of an aerosol-based fire extinguishing agent by quantifying the CO and CO2 content in the aerosol plume using a gas sensing technique called Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy.
Research Snip 1.52
Based on the flux plane orientation with the direction of rotor motion, #electrical machines are classified as longitudinal flux machine (LFM) and transverse flux machine (TFM). The paper presents a novel topology of a Hybrid Flux Machine that combines the advantages of LFM and TFM. The proposed hybrid flux machine is better than the TFM in various aspects, like increased magnet utilisation, high torque per magnet mass, and more.
Research Snip 1.51
Triazoles are biologically active compounds commonly used as fungicides and plant retardants. Its analogues have been proposed to treat central nervous system disorders. The study presents synthesis of a series of triazole-based compounds. These compounds can potentially be developed as therapeutic interventions against neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia.
Research Snip 1.50
Water pollution with heavy #metal contamination is a major concern as it can cause various diseases and disorders in living organisms. Adsorption and ion exchange are the commonly used techniques for heavy metal removal from contaminated water. The research reports synthesis of novel nanoparticles that exhibit rapid, efficient, and exceptional selectivity to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions by an ion-exchange-driven mechanism.
Research Snip 1.49
Anionic surfactants are organic substances that form active washing components. Calcium ions present in hard water can interfere with their function and necessitate water softening agents that bind with calcium ions. Polystyrene Sulfonate (PSS) is an essential component of many resins commercially employed as reusable water-softeners. Researchers use molecular simulations to understand the calcium-binding ability of PSS in the presence of anionic surfactants.
Research Snip 1.48
Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP), popular for electricity production in the power industry, are complex systems with a gas turbine, steam turbine, and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) working together. Any fault in one of these units would cause a significant reduction in overall efficiency and potentially lead to catastrophic accidents. The study discusses a fault diagnosis strategy for an actual industrial HRSG present in a CCPP. It focuses on the most commonly occurring faults (leakages) in heat exchangers. The researchers develop an artificial neural network that can classify all the testing faults with 99.8% accuracy.
Research Snip 1.47
Study of more than 62,000 Indian adolescents aged 15 through 17 years reveals that community-level women’s education is positively associated with their haemoglobin level and body mass index (BMI), after accounting for relevant covariates and contextual levels. It highlights the importance of structural changes and the need to engage communities along with adolescents. The findings might serve to fill a crucial link in the efforts to improve adolescent health and nutrition. It might also be of relevance for adolescents in similar resource-poor societies that are patriarchal.
Research Snip 1.46
Viscosity plays an important role in many biological processes and its variation can be related to several diseases. Fluorogenic Molecular Rotors (FMRs) are used for convenient imaging of viscosity inside cell compartments. Merocyanine is a dye widely used as fluorescent probes in the biomedical field. Researchers have synthesised five different merocyanines with desirable photophysical and molecular rotor properties.
Research Snip 1.45
Researchers report the fabrication of an inexpensive luminescent catalytic motor, exhibiting self-propulsion and stable fluorescence in dilute hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. The study indicates the ability of the bi-functional motor to qualitatively measure the density and viscosity of complex fluid under different conditions. The observations would potentially open up newer avenues in developing smart sensing platforms with chemically powered micro and nanomachines. Such devices, if fabricated, would be able to operate autonomously in liquids and offer insights into the dynamical properties of complex biological and non-biological systems.
Research Snip 1.44
G-quadruplexes (G4) are the most actively studied non-canonical secondary structures that are formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in guanine, one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids #RNA and #DNA. The study validates that B6, 5, a dye for screening G4-binding ligands in vitro and in cellulo, can serve the dual purpose of visualisation of DNA and RNA G4 structures and screening of G4 specific ligands, and adds to the limited number of probes with such potential.
Research Snip 1.43
The study aims to gain insights into the advantages of intermittency on balance control strategies involved in quiet standing of the healthy and individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). It provides an understanding of why intermittency is advantageous in postural control. The study establishes that intermittent control strategy can explain several clinical observations in PD including some of the seemingly contradictory observations, and thus may prove useful for the clinical posturography.
Research Snip 1.42
NMR spectroscopy is an established technique for structure determination at the molecular level. The study proposes a single platform technique to assess nanoparticle dissolution and agglomeration simultaneously, through spin-spin nuclear relaxation time from 1H NMR (a spectroscopic technique usually used for structural determination of molecules). It utilises the variation in spin-spin nuclear relaxation time to capture dissolution kinetics and aggregation behaviour of copper-oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in a range of simulated media.
Research Snip 1.41
Cascade reactions are important for the construction of multiple bonds in one-pot to achieve molecular complexity and diversity. However, it is challenging in synthetic organic chemistry to obtain excellent chemo-, regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity in cascade reactions. Researchers report the first α,γ-dialkylation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with excellent regioselectivity (the preference of chemical bonding or breaking in one direction over other possible directions) and enantioselectivity (the degree to which one enantiomer of a substance is produced in a chemical reaction).
Research Snip 1.40
A major portion (73%) of the power generation in India is from thermal energy, of which 85% is based on coal. The combination of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) salt is used to stabilise the coal ash slurries. Researchers propose that an optimum concentration of CTAB–NaSal and coarse coal ash particles are required to obtain stable and low viscous concentrated coal ash slurries that can be transported with low energy consumption and costs.
Research Snip 1.39
Researchers investigate the surface ordering and crystallisation sequences in differently organic-substituted amphiphilic polymeric materials (that simultaneously contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic components) induced by regulated compression at the air-water interface through liquid surface scattering using synchrotron X-ray radiation. Measurements and quantitative analysis provide critical insights into the dynamic nature of the ordering and packing behavior of the molecules by correlating the differences in their substitutions to the final crystal structure attained under lateral compression.
Research Snip 1.38
Researchers explore pathways adapted by DNA nanodevices and the space-time dynamics of the fundamental cellular mechanism by which cells uptake different molecules outside the cell. Insight into pathways for the uptake of nanoparticles in cells would help in designing smartly targeted biotherapeutics for targeting neuronal disorders.
Research Snip 1.37
Multimedia applications are being widely used in battery-operated hand-held devices like smartphones, iPads, etc., which consume significant power. The research proposes memory architectures highly suitable for multimedia applications as they consume very low power and require less area. The proposed memory architectures provide good image quality even at low power and area budgets. The technique can be used for multimedia applications and other data-intensive applications.
Research Snip 1.36
Researchers study a mathematical series and obtain an equivalent representation for this series in a theorem. In the course of studying this series, they encounter a surprising new generalisation of the arithmetic function related to the divisors of an integer and obtain several properties of this new function.
Research Snip 1.35
Resistance of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites) towards more than one antibiotic is a healthcare concern. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs), a vital part of the human immune system, are alternatives to fight resistant pathogens. Towards this, synthetic mimics of AMPs in the form of antimicrobial polymers have gained attention. Researchers design and synthesise methacrylamide-based antibiotic polymers which do not show bacterial resistance.
Research Snip 1.34
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. They are believed to have been synthesised in the extreme conditions that prevail in space. Researchers report the formation of complex structures by the effect of strong shock waves on amino acids. This explains the role of collisions in space in prebiotic evolution (the stage assumed to have occurred before the emergence of the first living entities).
Research Snip 1.33
Combining open channel junctions exist in hydraulic systems like river confluences, drainage networks, and water distribution systems. Flow Separation Zone (FSZ) forms as the tributary flow separates at the sharp corner of the junction. Reduction of the FSZ at the junction to improve efficiency is desirable. The paper presents a numerical study to show that FSZ is reduced by applying alternate suction and blowing at the right-angled channel junction.
Research Snip 1.32
Peptides, just like proteins, are the chains of amino acids and fundamental components of cells. The IITGN researchers study the antibacterial activity of a peptide against E. coli and S. aureus, the two most prevalent species of bacteria. Further studies showed that the peptide-coated surfaces were non-cytotoxic towards mammalian cells.
Research Snip 1.31
The process of growing thin films with well-defined orientations on the surface of a crystal such that the layer obtains the same structure as that of the surface has significant scientific and technological impact. The paper presents study on the deposition of high purity gold, silver, and copper on surfaces of sodium chloride (NaCl) crystal to obtain patterns that determine the crystal structure of materials.
Research Snip 1.30
Solid-liquid interfaces hold importance from the perspective of the development of certain novel technologies such as superhydrophobic (extremely difficult to wet) surfaces and superoleophobic (extremely repellent to oil) surfaces. Through the paper, researchers present the work done towards investigating interfacial fluctuations between solid and liquid, using a computational approach. The work also determines contributions coming from the solid-fluid attractive interactions.
Research Snip 1.29
Did you know that sugarcane juice has a role to play in the synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles? 2D graphene-oxide (GO) makes it a more promising material for fabricating CuO hybrid nanostructures with improved properties. The article reports the green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles on a 2D GO matrix using sugarcane juice. Excellent results were observed.
Research Snip 1.28
Opposing Open-Channel Flow (OCF) is a special case of a type of liquid flow, combining open-channel flow, wherein flows in two open channels approach each other for a combined flow through a third channel. Researchers investigate the hydraulics of OCF by using Fluent (a computational fluid dynamics software). They validated the numerical model against experimental results published in the literature and used the simulated results to develop empirical equations for contraction coefficient, flow depth ratio, and minimum water depth in the contracted section of the OCF.